Connect with us

Tech

Can You Become Immune to the Coronavirus?

Published

on


As the number of people infected with the coronavirus surpasses 450,000 worldwide, and more than one billion are locked in their homes, scientists are wrestling with one of the most pressing questions of the pandemic: Do people who survive the infection become immune to the virus?

The answer is a qualified yes, with some significant unknowns. That’s important for several reasons.

People who are confirmed to be immune could venture from their homes and help shore up the work force until a vaccine becomes available, for example. In particular, health care workers who are known to be immune could continue to care for the severely ill.

Growing immunity in the community also is the way the epidemic ends: With fewer and fewer people to infect, the coronavirus will lose its toehold and even the most vulnerable citizens become more insulated from the threat.

Immunity may also bring an early treatment. Antibodies gathered from the bodies of those who have recovered may be used to aid those struggling with the illness caused by the coronavirus, called Covid-19.

On Tuesday, the Food and Drug Administration approved the use of plasma from recovered patients to treat some severe cases. A day earlier, Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo announced that New York would become the first state to begin testing serum from people who have recovered from Covid-19 to treat those who are seriously ill.

“It’s a trial for people who are in serious condition, but the New York State Department of Health has been working on this with some of New York’s best health care agencies, and we think it shows promise,” Mr. Cuomo said.

The body’s first line of defense against an infectious virus is an antibody called immunoglobulin M, whose job is to stay vigilant in the body and alert the rest of the immune system to intruders like viruses and bacteria.

Days into an infection, the immune system refines this antibody into a second type, called immunoglobulin G, exquisitely designed to recognize and neutralize a specific virus.

The refinement may take as long as a week; both the process and the potency of the final antibodies can vary. Some people make powerful neutralizing antibodies to an infection, while others mount a milder response.

The antibodies generated in response to infection with some viruses — polio or measles, for example — bestow a lifetime of immunity. But antibodies to the coronaviruses that cause the common cold persist for just one to three years — and that may be true of their new cousin as well.

A study in macaques infected with the new coronavirus suggested that once infected, the monkeys produce neutralizing antibodies and resist further infection. But it is unclear how long the monkeys, or people infected with the virus, will remain immune.

Most people who became infected during the SARS epidemic — that virus is a close cousin of the new coronavirus, called SARS-CoV-2 — had long-term immunity lasting eight to 10 years, said Vineet D. Menachery, a virologist at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston.

Those who recovered from MERS, another coronavirus, saw much shorter-term protection, Dr. Menachery said. People who have been infected with the new coronavirus may have immunity lasting at least one to two years, he added: “Beyond that, we can’t predict.”

Still, even if antibody protection were short-lasting and people became reinfected, the second bout with the coronavirus would likely be much milder than the first, said Florian Krammer, a microbiologist at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York.

Even after the body stops producing neutralizing antibodies, a subset of immune memory cells can reactivate a response effectively, he noted.

“You probably would make a good immune response before you even become symptomatic again and might really blunt the course of the disease,” Dr. Krammer said.

A crucial question is whether children and adults who have only mild symptoms still generate a strong enough response to remain immune to the virus until a vaccine is available.

Dr. Marion Koopmans, a virologist at Erasmus University in Rotterdam, and her team have screened antibody responses in 15 infected patients and health care workers.

The researchers are also using banked blood samples from about 100 people who were known to be infected with one of four coronaviruses known to cause the common cold.

If those samples show some immune response to the new coronavirus, too, Dr. Koopmans said, it might explain why some people — children, for example — have only mild symptoms. They may have antibodies to related coronaviruses that are at least somewhat effective against the new one.

The quickest way to assess immunity is a blood test that looks for protective antibodies in the blood of people who have recovered. But first you have to have the test.

Antibody tests are used in Singapore, China and a handful of other countries. But they are just coming to market in much of the West.

Last week, Dr. Krammer and his colleagues developed one such antibody test that could be scaled up in “days to weeks,” he said.

The team validated the test in blood plasma taken from three patients with Covid-19. The researchers are seeking speedy approval from the F.D.A.

Dozens of other labs are also at work on a dizzying list of tests, although they, too, are mostly based on slim data that has not yet been reviewed by other scientists.

“No matter who makes them, as long as they’re reliable, that’s a super nice tool,” Dr. Krammer said. Because this is a new coronavirus, the test should deliver “basically, a yes or no answer, like an H.I.V. test — you can figure out who was exposed and who wasn’t.”

On Wednesday, officials of Public Health England said they had purchased millions of newly developed antibody tests and were evaluating them for patients to use at home. Citizens who discovered they had been exposed and now had some immunity to the coronavirus might be able to return to normal lives, the officials said.

That would be particularly useful for health care workers. Those who know they have at least some immunity could be placed on the front lines of emergency care, sparing colleagues who have not been exposed.

[Like the Science Times page on Facebook. | Sign up for the Science Times newsletter.]

“If this really goes on for months at a time, for 18 months as some people have projected, having health care workers who are immune to the virus will be really, really helpful,” said Angela Rasmussen, a virologist at Columbia University in New York.

But tests like these may not be of much use for diagnosis of coronavirus infection as it gets underway, because of the time it takes for the body to begin producing antibodies.

Dr. Krammer’s test picks up an antibody response as early as three days after symptoms emerge. Given that people may not show symptoms for as long as 14 days after infection, however, that is too late for the test to be useful as a diagnostic tool.

Finding people with powerful antibody responses might help point the way to new treatments, however. Essentially, antibodies extracted from the blood of recovered patients are injected into those who are ill.

Several teams have already been working on such an effort, following early reports from China of success. A Beijing-based company called AnyGo Technology has provided 50,000 tests to the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and to hospitals in Wuhan, Beijing and Shanghai, according to its founder, Dr. Le Sun.

Dr. Shangen Zheng, a doctor with the Chinese military, said his team had treated more than 10 patients so far, and data from many more patients treated with plasma in Hubei Province is being assessed.

This approach is actually “something very old-fashioned,” Dr. Krammer said. It was used to save American soldiers infected with the hemorrhagic Hantaan virus during the Korean War, and to treat people in Argentina infected with the hemorrhagic Junin virus.

Before the method can be put into wide use, however, scientists must work out safety issues, such as ensuring that the plasma taken from recovered patients is free of other viruses and toxins.

Pharmaceutical companies like Takeda and Regeneron are hoping to sidestep some of those questions by developing antibodies against the coronavirus in the laboratory.

Ultimately, it is only with these tests that scientists will be able to say when enough of the population has been infected and has become immune — and when the virus has begun to run out of hosts.



Source

Continue Reading
Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Tech

Ex-astronaut launches training kit for coping with self-isolation | Science

Published

on

By


Perhaps your flatmate has polished off the last beer in the fridge, diverging tastes in Netflix series have led to simmering tensions, or parental negotiations over home-schooling have descended into hostility.

Life in lockdown can fuel family tensions, sour friendships and drive a wedge between new romantic partners who have opted to self-isolate together. Help is on hand, however.

A former Nasa astronaut, Jay Buckey, has launched an online self-help toolkit aimed at replicating the kind of training designed to help astronauts cope with confinement in small spaces for extended periods.

“It’s challenging to be isolated with a small group of people and to not be able to get away,” said Buckey, who flew on a 16-day Space Shuttle Columbia mission that orbited the Earth 256 times. “Outer space and your own living room might be drastically different physically, but emotionally the stressors can be the same.”

The online training, called the Dartmouth Path Program, was developed to determine how the space programme can manage pressures brought on by long-duration spaceflight. It is already being tested in extreme environments such as research stations in Antarctica, but since social distancing restrictions came into force it has been made freely available to the public online.

It includes training on conflict resolution, mood management and self-assessment tools to be able to monitor signs of anxiety and stress.

For stress, the programme prompts the participant to consider whether they could be over-reacting, catastrophising or making judgments that don’t fit the evidence. Focused breathing and muscle relaxation techniques are outlined for when you are feeling anxious or angry.

The training also covers depression, which can set in when you feel restricted and unable to do the things that normally boost your mood, according to Buckey, who is now a professor of medicine at Dartmouth College.

The programme encourages people to select problems and find aspects they can improve or solve and to brainstorm positive steps they can take. It encourages people to think about a single enjoyable activity that is possible to do each day. “If you focus constantly on what you can’t do or things you want to do or that you’re isolated, that’s not good for mood,” said Buckey.

Keeping a balance between group time and private time is crucial, he said. “You need to allow people their privacy but not to allow them to become isolated and separated from a group,” he said. “If someone’s spending all their time in their room with their door closed, that’s not great. Forcing people to take part in group activities that they’re just not into – that’s not good either.”

According to Buckey, Nasa and other agencies now give psychological training to avoid conflict between crew members, but the problem blighted some missions in the past. The Russian cosmonaut Valentin Lebvedev, who documented his 211-day stay onboard the Space Station Salyut 7 with Anatoly Berezovoy, wrote: “We don’t understand what’s going on with us. We silently walk by each other, feeling offended. We have to find some way to make things better.”

Scientists on Antarctic missions have also struggled with isolation, Buckey said, pointing to the notes of Jean Rivolier, a French psychologist and chief doctor on several Antarctic expeditions, describing the dismal morale of one party in the 1990s.

“One subject returned early to Sydney on psychological grounds, because he was homesick for his family and he became progressively more depressed,” Rivolier wrote. “When the others returned they were humourless, tired, despondent and resentful. None had found the Antarctic experience to be enjoyable, not so much from any rigours of the climate, terrain or personal hardships as from inconsiderate and selfish behaviour.”

Pete Davis, an oceanographer at the British Antarctic Survey, said the uncertain length of missions to the south pole, due to weather considerations, was challenging. The “worst thing to do”, he said, was to focus on when isolation would end. “The best thing to avoid is what’s going to happen in three months time when you’ve only just started,” he said. “All you can control is what’s going to happen today or tomorrow.”


Davis, who returned from a three-month Antarctic mission in February only to be plunged back into confinement at home, advised that simple, considerate gestures could help ensure harmony.

“In Antarctica, full-blown conflict doesn’t tend to happen, but the small niggle of ‘that’s so annoying’ does,” he said. “Just things like if you’re going to make a cup of tea, make sure you ask everyone as well. It’s such a minor thing but it can get under people’s skin.”



Source

Continue Reading

Tech

Indie Band Combines Zoom Technology and Choreography in Music Video – Variety

Published

on

By


The coronavirus pandemic has impacted daily life all over the country, but Oakland, Calif. artist Thao Nguyen and her band, Thao & The Get Down Stay Down, took the hardship as a challenge.

The group set to film a music video for their new single, “Phenom,” in Los Angeles (where Nguyen currently resides) in late March, but plans for the shoot were cancelled as fears over the spread of coronavirus forced a statewide statewide shelter-in-place order for California on Mar. 20.

Nguyen’s manager made the suggestion that they shoot an alternative using the popular video conferencing platform Zoom.  By Wednesday, March 25, Thao had digitally convened with her team for what would serve as the video’s only pre-production meeting.

Directed by Erin Murray (Ed Sheeran, Charli XCX) and Jeremy Schaulin-Rioux (PUP, Calpurnia) and produced by Victoria Fayad (Moby), the video features Nguyen performing “Phenom” from home while a rotating supporting cast performs choreographed routines in individual Zoom windows.

Pieced together on March 29 over the course of nine hours, the video was cut and released to the public within 48 hours. Its brilliantly creative use of technology and choreography saw views for the video quadruple in the last couple days.

The track, which Nguyen says takes influence from the post-apocalyptic utopias of writers like Octavia Butler and Ursula Le Guin, is, in her words, a “direct descendant” of her A Man Alive track “Meticulous Bird.” “Phenom” is available to stream now and will appear on the band’s fifth studio album, Temple, due May 15 from Ribbon Music.

Watch the video below:





Source

Continue Reading

Tech

Magna Steyr, Honxin, Kautex Textron, TI Automotive, Yachiyo Industry – Northwest Trail

Published

on

By


Global Metal Fuel Tank Market 2020” provides in-depth analysis of the current and upcoming market and synopsis of product type, specification, product innovation, and production analysis considering major key factors, like Cost, Revenue, Gross, and Gross Margin and provides the entirely analysis of “Metal Fuel Tank Market” using manufacturing process, price analysis and SWOT analysis (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threat) is examined in this study report.

This market understand repository presents readers with an encyclopedic evaluation of the global Metal Fuel Tank market. Each aspect of the global Metal Fuel Tank market is assessed in thorough detail in the report to provide a 360-degree review of the market’s workings for interested parties. The past, present, and future growth trajectory of the Metal Fuel Tank Market are assessed in the report, with detailed analysis of the historical trajectory of the market providing a solid database for reliable predictions regarding the Metal Fuel Tank Market future.

Get FREE Sample PDF of This Research Report: www.syndicatemarketresearch.com/market-analysis/metal-fuel-tank-market.html#sample

Company Coverage (Company Profile, Sales Revenue, Price, Gross Margin, Main Products, etc.): Magna Steyr, Honxin, Kautex Textron, TI Automotive, Yachiyo Industry, Tokyo Radiator Mfg, Hwashin Tech, Futaba Industrial, FTS Co., AAPICO Hitech PLC, Yapp Automotive Parts, Wanxiang Tongda, Wuhu Shunrong, Changchun Qiche Youxiang, Jiangsu Suguang, Lingchuan Industry, Jiangling Huaxiang

Segmentation By Product Type and analysis of the Metal Fuel Tank Market:
Iron, Alloy, Other

Segmentation By Application and analysis of the Metal Fuel Tank Market:
Passenger Cars, Commercial Vehicles

Overview of the Report: The report begins with a market overview and moves on to cover the growth prospects of the markets. Global Metal Fuel Tank industry 2020 is a comprehensive, professional report delivering market research data that is relevant for new market entrants or established players. Key methodologies of the organizations working in the business sectors and their effect included for the report. Moreover, the main player’s revenue share, business overview, and analysis in the Metal Fuel Tank market are available in the report.

Do You Have Any Query Or Specific Requirement? Ask Our Industry Expert: www.syndicatemarketresearch.com/inquiry/metal-fuel-tank-market

Geographical Segmentation And Analysis Of The Metal Fuel Tank Market

Regionally, the market is divided into North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and the Middle East and Africa. In which North America ruled the global Metal Fuel Tank market in 2019.

• North America (USA, Canada, & Mexico)
• South America (Brazil, Argentina)
• Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, Indonesia, & Australia)
• Europe (Turkey, Germany, Russia, UK, Italy, France)
• The Middle East and Africa (GCC Countries & Egypt)
and the rest countries of each region…

world-map-image.jpg

Key Questions Answered In The Report Include:

What will the growth rate and market size be in 2026?
What are the key factors driving the global Metal Fuel Tank market?
What are the key market trends impacting the growth of the global Metal Fuel Tank market?
What are the challenges to market growth?
Who are the key vendors in the global Metal Fuel Tank market?
What are the market opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in the global Metal Fuel Tank market?
Growing factors affecting the market shares of the EMEA, Americas, and APAC.
What are the key outcomes of the five forces analysis of the global Metal Fuel Tank market?

What the Report has in Store for you?

– Industry Size & Forecast: The industry analysts have offered historical, current, and estimated projections of the industry size from the value and volume point of view

– Future Opportunities: In this section of the report, Metal Fuel Tank participants are provided with the information on the future prospects that the Metal Fuel Tank industry is likely to offer

– Industry Trends & Developments: Here, authors of the report have talked about the major trends and developments taking place in the Metal Fuel Tank marketplace and their estimated impact on the overall growth

– Study on Industry Segmentation: Detailed breakdown of the key Metal Fuel Tank industry segments including product type, application, and vertical has been done in this portion of the report

– Regional Analysis: Metal Fuel Tank vendors are offered crucial information about the high growth regions and their respective countries, thus helping them to invest in profitable regions

– Competitive Landscape: This unit of the report throws light on the competitive scenario of the Metal Fuel Tank industry by focusing on the key strategies taken up by the vendors to consolidate their presence in the Metal Fuel Tank business.

The study report includes the following chapters:

Chapter 1, describe market overview, market opportunities, market driving force, market risks, and Metal Fuel Tank product scope
Chapter 2, profile the top manufacturers of Metal Fuel Tank, with sales, revenue, price, and global market share of Metal Fuel Tank in 2019 and 2020
Chapter 3, the Metal Fuel Tank competitive situation, sales, revenue and global market share of leading manufacturers are analyzed decisively by landscape contrast
Chapter 4, the Metal Fuel Tank breakdown data are shown at the regional level, to show the sales, revenue, and growth by regions, from 2020 to 2025
Chapters 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, to break the sales data at the country level, with sales, revenue, and market share for key countries in the world, from 2020 to 2026
Chapters 10 and 11, to segment the sales by type and application, with sales market share and growth rate by type, application, from 2020 to 2026
Chapter 12, Metal Fuel Tank market forecast, by regions, type, and application, with sales and revenue, from 2020 to 2026
Chapter 13, 14 and 15, to describe Metal Fuel Tank sales channel, distributors, customers, research findings and conclusion, appendix and data source

Browse Full Research Report Now: www.syndicatemarketresearch.com/market-analysis/metal-fuel-tank-market.html

Note: If you have any special requirements, please let us know and we will offer you the report as you want.

About us:

Setting a strong foot in the industry with all planned and tactical approaches is surely not a cakewalk. You need loads of research, analysis, consider several factors, and above all, give your valuable time to the entire process. This is where Syndicate Market Research kicks in as a support system for our clients.

Contact Us:

Syndicate Market Research
244 Fifth Avenue, Suite N202
New York, 10001, United States
+1 347 535 0815 | Email ID: sales@syndicatemarketresearch.com
Website: www.syndicatemarketresearch.com



Source

Continue Reading

Trending

//ofgogoatan.com/afu.php?zoneid=2954224
We use cookies to best represent our site. By continuing to use this site, you agree to the use of cookies.
Yes